Education books pdf free download. Thousands of free online books on education, for parents, teachers & students.
‘Book Collections‘ and ‘Vintage Books‘ are at the bottom.
CORE BOOKS – Education
Univ. of Chicago 1992
“Some of the topics Barzun addresses include the inadequate ways in which reading is taught, the demeaning methods of teacher training, the counterfeit ‘social studies’ programs which are the offshoot of combined geography and history curriculums, the benefits of reading the classics; and how television affects learning.” -Libr J.
See our books on Higher Education
Teaching in a Digital Age: Guidelines for designing teaching and learning – Education Textbook PDF
Bates, A. W.
In summary, the book examines the underlying principles that guide effective teaching in an age when everyone, and in particular the students we are teaching, are using technology. A framework and a set of guidelines are suggested for making decisions about your teaching, while understanding that every subject is different, and every teacher and instructor has something unique and special to bring to their teaching. Open Access textbook.
I Don’t Wish Nobody to Have a Life like Mine: Tales of Kids in Adult Lockup – Education Books To Read
Beacon Press 2010 Dewey Dec. 371.9
Since 1992, every state except Nebraska has passed laws making it easier to prosecute youth under eighteen as adults, and most states have legalized harsher sentences for juveniles. David Chura taught high school in a New York county penitentiary for ten years and saw these young people and the effects of our laws on them up close. Here he introduces us to the real kids behind the hysteria: vibrant, animated kids full of humor and passion; kids who were born into families broken up and beaten down by drugs, gang violence, AIDS, poverty, and abuse. He also introduces us to wardens, correctional officers, family members, and doctors, and shows how everyone in this world is a child of disappointment. Chura breaks down the divisions we so easily erect between us and them, the keepers and the kept and shows how, ultimately, we as individuals and as a society have failed these young people.
Creating Online Learning Experiences – Education Textbook PDF
Crosslin, Matt, et al.
Mavs Open Press 2018
This book provides an updated look at issues that comprise the online learning experience creation process. As online learning evolves, the lines and distinctions between various classifications of courses has blurred and often vanished. Classic elements of instructional design remain relevant at the same time that newer concepts of learning experience are growing in importance. This handbook explores many of these topics for new and experienced designers alike, whether creating traditional online courses, open learning experiences, or anything in between.
Yale Univ. 1992
In this lucid, disturbing, and provocative book, Joan Delfattore offers a behind-the-scenes view of the ways in which special-interest groups influence the content of textbooks used in public and private schools throughout the country. Most challenges have come from ultraconservative activists who oppose evolution, racial and ethnic equality, nontraditional gender roles, pacifism, and a host of other issues that contradict their religious, political, or social views. Other protests originate with ultraliberal activists whose goal is to eliminate all negative or traditional descriptions of racial, ethnic, religious, or gender groups, without regard for accuracy or historical context. DelFattore focuses on recent federal lawsuits involving attempts to censor or ban biology, geology, history, home economics, literature, psychology, reading, and social studies textbooks. She vividly re-creates the story behind each lawsuit, describing how politically sophisticated national organizations turn local controversies into nationally publicized court cases.
Gottlieb, Richard, ed.
Millerton, NY: Grey House 2015
Educators Resource Directory is designed to provide educators, administrators, and other education professionals with immediate access to a unique combination of educational resources, along with important educational statistics and rankings. Educators Resource Directory includes associations, publications, trade shows, workshops, and training programs. This resource is designed not only to help educators advance professionally, but also to give them the resources they need to help their students, their schools, and their state meet educational standards.
Kovalchick, Ann and Dawson, Kara, ed.
In this new encyclopedia, the only book on educational technology designed for the nonexpert, scholars in the field describe, in jargon-free terms, how educational practices have shaped our uses of technology–and vice versa. They discuss the traditions that are the core knowledge base of the field along with the theoretical, commercial, and social perspectives. In a variety of educational contexts–kindergarten through postsecondary education, corporate and industrial training, and distance education–they evaluate the latest technologies and products.
Harper Perennial 1992 Dewey Dec. 371.9
In 1988, Jonathan Kozol set off to spend time with children in the American public education system. For two years, he visited schools in neighborhoods across the country, from Illinois to Washington, D.C., and from New York to San Antonio. He spoke with teachers, principals, superintendents, and, most important, children. What he found was devastating. Not only were schools for rich and poor blatantly unequal, the gulf between the two extremes was widening–and it has widened since. The urban schools he visited were overcrowded and understaffed, and lacked the basic elements of learning–including books and, all too often, classrooms for the students.
The Complete Learning Disabilities Directory (19th edition, 2015) – Educational Books Free
Mars, Laura, ed.
Armenia, NY: Grey House 2014
“A Comprehensive resource guide for parents, students, and professionals.” Chapters: Associations & organizations — Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder — Camps & summer programs — Classroom resources — Conferences & workshops — Computer resources — Exchange programs — Government agencies — Literacy & learning skills — Media: books — Media: pamphlets — Media: magazines & newsletters — Media: publishers — Media: audio & video — Media: web sites & data bases — Professional periodicals — Professional texts — Schools & colleges — Learning centers — Testing resources — Vocational & transitional skills.
Stones into Schools: Promoting Peace with Books, Not Bombs, in Afghanistan and Pakistan – Education Books To Read PDF
In this follow-up to ‘Three cCups of Tea’, the author ‘‘continues the story of how the Central Asia Institute (CAI) built schools in northern Afghanistan. Descriptions of the harsh geography and more than one near-death experience impress readers as new faces join Mortenson’s loyal ‘Dirty Dozen’ as they carefully plot a course of school-building through the Badakshan province and Wakhan corridor. . . .To blandly call this book inspiring would be dismissive of all the hard work that has gone into the mission in Afghanistan as well as the efforts to fund it. Mortenson writes of nothing less than saving the future, and his adventure is light years beyond most attempts.” -Booklist
Learning to Learn Online – Education Textbook PDF
Page, Christina and Vincent, Adam
Kwantlen Polytechnic University 2018
Learning to Learn Online helps you prepare for online learning success by introducing you to the online learning environment and your role as a learner within it. As you come to understand yourself as an self-directed learner, you will also be introduced to effective learning strategies: time management for online learners, information management, professional communication, and reading strategies.
Introduction to Curriculum for Early Childhood Education – Education Textbook PDF
Paris, Jennifer, et al.
College of the Canyons 2019
How to plan curriculum for young children. Addresses: Developing curriculum through the planning cycle; Theories that inform what we know about how children learn and the best ways for teachers to support learning; The three components of developmentally appropriate practice; Importance and value of play and intentional teaching; Different models of curriculum; Process of lesson planning (documenting planned experiences for children); [plus several more points]. Open access textbook.
Master the Catholic High School Entrance Exams 2014 – Educational System in USA
Peterson’s guide has been specifically designed to assist you with preparing for and taking the most commonly used Catholic high school entrance exams. We not only help you develop test-taking skills but also provide descriptions and examples of each entrance exam with eight full-length practice tests; two New York City Tests for Admission into Catholic High Schools (TACHS), two Cooperative Entrance Exams (COOPs), two High School Placement Tests (HSPTs), one Secondary School Admission Test (SSAT), and one Independent School Entrance Examination (ISEE). Also, details and expert test-prep strategies, guidance on all test formats and scoring, and thorough review of verbal, math and quantitative sections of the exams. – Publisher
Peterson’s Private Secondary Schools – Educational System in USA
This valuable resource gives students and their parents the information they need to compare and select from private schools in the U.S., Canada, and around the world. Highlighting a wide variety of schools, including independent day schools, special needs schools, and boarding schools, it features informative data profiles for more than 1,500 schools.
The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice are Undermining Education – Popular Education Books PDF
Drawing on over forty years of research and experience, Ravitch critiques today’s most popular ideas for restructuring schools, including privatization, standardized testing, punitive accountability, and the feckless multiplication of charter schools. She shows conclusively why the business model is not an appropriate way to improve schools. Using examples from major cities like New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Denver, and San Diego, Ravitch makes the case that public education today is in peril.
The Complete Home Learning Sourcebook: The Essential Resource Guide for Homeschoolers, Parents, and Educators Covering Every Subject from Arithmetic to Zoology
Three Rivers 1998
This exhaustive and comprehensive sourcebook provides parents and teachers with information on all the resources needed to plan a well-balanced curriculum for the home or the classroom, from preschool through high school. The Complete Home Learning Sourcebook not only covers basic academic subjects–the three R’s–but also addresses interests that are off the beaten path of public school curricula, such as paleontology and meteorology. Thorough and up-to-date, this invaluable resource reviews all possible learning tools.
In 1997 Mark Salzman, bestselling author, paid a reluctant visit to a writing class at L.A.’s Central Juvenile Hall, a lockup for violent teenage offenders, many of them charged with murder. What he found so moved and astonished him that he began to teach there regularly. In voices of indelible emotional presence, the boys write about what led them to crime and about the lives that stretch ahead of them behind bars. We see them coming to terms with their crime-ridden pasts and searching for a reason to believe in their future selves. Insightful, comic, honest and tragic, True Notebooks is an object lesson in the redemptive power of writing.
Siegel, Lawrence M.
“The Complete IEP Guide” offers vital information, useful strategies and — most importantly — encouragement as you secure your child’s education, step by step. It includes everything you need to:
– understand your child’s rights
– untangle eligibility rules and assessments
– collect all school records
– draft goals and objectives
– pinpoint specific problems
– develop a blueprint of program and services
– research school programs and alternative
– prepare for IEP meetings
– resolve disputes with your school district
Tyack, David B.
Harvard University 1974
The One Best System presents a major new interpretation of what actually happened in the development of one of America’s most influential institutions. At the same time it is a narrative in which the participants themselves speak out: farm children and factory workers, frontier teachers and city superintendents, black parents and elite reformers. And it encompasses both the achievements and the failures of the system: the successful assimilation of immigrants, racism and class bias; the opportunities offered to some, the injustices perpetuated for others.
Wuest, Deborah A. and Bucher, Charles A.
Integrating the traditional presentation of the nature, scope, philosophy, and history of physical education and sport with the growing career opportunities available within this dynamic field, this text addresses the challenges and the future of the discipline. It emphasizes preparation for a diversity of careers, addressing areas such as teaching, coaching, exercise leadership, athletic training, sport management, and sport media.
More CORE BOOKS – Education
Canestrari, Alan S. and Marlowe, Bruce A.
Cremin, Lawrence A.
Harper Torchbooks 1988
Cremin defines education broadly, to include not only the work of schools and colleges but also the efforts of families, churches, libraries, lyceums, museums, and expositions, and even of individuals engaged in systematic efforts to instruct themselves.
Finn, Chester E. et al.
Holmes & Meier 1984
Essays discuss the importance of the humanities, foreign languages, teacher education, professionalism, and quality teaching.
Good, Harry G.
Surveys educational ideas and practices since the seventeenth century paying special attention to the influence of European theories and the American democratic social order.
Princeton Univ. 2005
Harmon, Deborah A. and Jones, Toni Stokes
Death at an Early Age: The Destruction of the Hearts and Minds of Negro Children in the Boston Public Schools – Educational Book Online
A young teacher offers a firsthand account of the destructive effects of segregated Boston schools and their teachers on the African American children who attend them. It won the U.S. National Book Award in the Science, Philosophy and Religion category.
Three Rivers 2005
American Bee; The National Spelling Bee and the Culture of Word Nerds: The Lives of Five Top Spellers as They Compete for Glory and Fame
St. Martin’s Griffin 1996
As American education lags behind the rest of the world, this new edition is more timely than ever. The children of today face struggles far greater than any previous generation and we, as parents and teachers, must teach them now to make choices for themselves and to learn from the outcome of their decisions.
Informed Arguments: A Guide to Writing and Research – Education Textbook PDF
Pantuso, Terri, et al.
Texas A&M University 2019
“The text covers the writing process, rhetoric and argumentation, and research-based writing sufficiently in-depth to work as a primary textbook for a composition course focusing on these topics.” – Review
Postman, Neil – Popular Education Books Online
Knopf 1996 Dewey Dec. 370.9
“In this comprehensive response to the education crisis, the author of Teaching as a Subversive Activity returns to the subject that established his reputation as one of our most insightful social critics. Postman presents useful models with which schools can restore a sense of purpose, tolerance, and a respect for learning.” Publisher
This widely praised history of the controversies that have beset American schools and universities since World War II is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand the condition of American education today. – Publisher
BOOK COLLECTIONS – Education
Public Schools U.S. Free PDF Books – Collection – Education Books PDF Free Download
About 350 books from the Internet Archive free online on the subject of Public Schools U.S. Some books: Religion in Schools pdf, The Public School in the American Community pdf, Debating the Future of Public Education in America pdf, Education Report Card pdf, Battleground: Schools pdf, Common Schools and American Society 1780-1860, A Plan to Save America’s Schoolchildren pdf, The Promise of Public Education in America pdf, A Revisionist Interpretation of American Public Education, The Real World of the Public Schools, Why Schools are Mired in Mediocrity pdf, many more.
Teaching Methods and Materials – Collection – Books About Pedagogy
About 600 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Teaching Methods and Materials – General”. Some books: The Power of Positive Teaching, How Teaching Can Inspire Real Learning in the Classroom, The Heart and Wisdom of Teaching, Reciprocal Teaching Interactivities, Succeeding with Difficult Students, Promising Practices in Character Education pdf, What the Best College Teachers Do pdf, Self-Regulation in the Classroom, Engaging Teachers in Classroom Walkthroughs pdf, many more. Education books free PDF download.
Curriculum Books PDF – CollectionEducation Books PDF Free Download
More than 2,000 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Curriculum”. Some books: Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies, Curriculum: foundations priciples and theory, Rethinking the Ontario Curriculum, Curriculum: perspectives and practice, Curriculum Improvement: decision making and process, A Critical Introduction to Curriculum Theory pdf, Curriculum Planning: a handbook for professionals pdf, The Open Access Curriculum pdf, many more.
Classroom Management Books – Collection – Best Educational Books For Teachers
About 1,000 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Classroom Management”. Some books: Avoiding Burnout and Increasing Your Motivation pdf, Classroom Management in Photographs pdf, Teaching Effective Classroom Routines, Managing Common Classroom Problems, When Kids Bend the Rules pdf, Clashing Views on Controversial Issues on Classroom Management, Assertive Discipline, The Tough Kid Book, Making it Till Friday, many more. Education books free PDF download.
Free Home Schooling Books – Collection – Educational Books Online
About 400 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Home Schooling”. Some books: Ultimate Guide to Homeschooling pdf, The Homeschool Reader pdf, A Guide to Abundant-Life Homeschooling, When Homeschooling Gets Tough pdf, The Big Book of Home Learning, Absolute Beginner’s Guide to Homeschooling pdf, Home Schooling: a better education for your child pdf, The Home School Manual pdf, Homeschooling in Wisconsin, many more.
Free digital magazines online here at Century Past
Private Schools Books – Collection – Educational Books Free
About 500 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Private Schools”. (Many novels were inadvertently caught in this search). Some books: The Handbook of Private Schools: an annual, Private Secondary Schools, California Private School Directory, Choosing a Private School pdf, Guide to Job Searching in Private Schools pdf, Independent School Guide for Washington D.C and Area pdf, Reflections on Independent Education pdf, Canada’s Independent Schools, How to Pick a Perfect Private School, many more.
Psychology of Learning PDF Free – Collection – Recommended Books For Teachers
About 1,100 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Psychology of Learning”. Some books: The Learning Revolution, Psychology of Classroom Learning pdf, Intro to Theories of Learning, Learning Theory and Personality Dynamics pdf, Learning for Teachers, The Psychology of Teaching Methods, Learning: a Survey of Psychological Interpretations, Habits: their making and unmaking, Contemporary Research in Learning, many more. Education books free PDF download.
Academic Achievement Books PDF – Collection – Top Books For Educators
About 700 books from the Internet Archive free online on the subject of Academic Achievement. Some books: The 3 Dimensions of Improving Student Performance, The Learning Coach Approach, Developing Effective Study Strategies, Understanding and Closing Achievement Gaps, How to Get Good Grades pdf, Standards for our Schools pdf, Improving Student Learning One Teacher at a Time, Why Bad Grades Happen to Good Kids pdf, Lessons from 21 High Performing High-Poverty Schools, many more.
See our books on Study Skills
Free Early Childhood Education Books PDF – Collection – Primary Education Books
About 1,400 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Early Childhood Education”. Some books: Play Together Learn Together, Teaching Young Children pdf, Early Childhood Education Today pdf, Kindergarten: a Parent’s Guide, Early Childhood Programs for a New Century, Educating Young Children Infancy to Grade Three, Telling Writing & Performing Stories in the Early Childhood Classroom, Early Childhood Curriculum, Family Involvement in Early Childhood Education, many more. Education books free PDF download.
Free Kindergarten Books – Collection – Primary Education Books PDF
About 630 books from the Internet Archive free online on the subject of Kindergarten. Many of these are books for early readers. Some books: Kindergarten Teacher’s Activities Desk Book, Your Child and the First Year of School, Is Everybody Ready for Kindergarten? pdf, The New Kindergarten: full day, child-centered, academic, Kindergarten Politics: what is best for children, Kindergarten: programs and practices, The Teacher’s Guide to Building Blocks, Phonics Reading & Writing Curriculum, many more.
Be patient while the page loads.
Elementary Education Books PDF Download – Collection – Primary Education Books Free
About 300 free PDF books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Elementary Education”. Some books: Inside the Primary School, Get Ready for Standardized Tests: grade 4, 25 Terrific Literature Activities for Readers of All Learning Styles, Teaching in the Modern Elementary School pdf, The Emerging Elementary Curriculum, Fast Ideas for Busy Teachers pdf, School-Savvy Parent: 365 tips to help you help your child, Elementary Education 1780-1900, Parents are Teachers too, many more. Education books.
Short Stories online for kids here at Century Past
Primary Education PDF Free Books – Collection – Best Books For Elementary Teachers
About 110 PDF books from the Internet Archive free online on the subject of Primary Education. Be patient as the page loads. Some books: Preventing Failure in the Primary Grades, Teaching the Young Child, Help for Primary Teachers, Build the Foundation for your Child’s Success in First Grade, Teaching in the Early Years, Teacher Tips for Action Time, Kid Pix Simple Projects, The Summer Activity Book, Literature-Based History Activities for Children Grades 1-3, Implementing Kentucky’s Primary Program, many more.
Middle School Education Books Free – Collection – Recommended Books For Teachers
About 100 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Middle School Education”. Be patient as the page loads. Some books: Perspectives on the Middle School, The Exemplary Middle School, The Middle School Curriculum, Developmentally Responsive Middle Level Schools, Educational Reform for Young Adolescents in California Public Schools, Middle Level Curriculum in Actions, Education in the Middle Grades, Meeting the Needs of the Early Adolescent Learner, many more.
About 400 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Secondary Education”. Some books: Best Practices of Award-Winning Secondary School Principals, Tips for Secondary School Libraries, Survival Kit for the Secondary School Art Teacher, How to Prepare for the SSAT/ISEE, Class Size and English in the Secondary School, Catholic High School Entrance Exams, Career Counseling, Geometry for the Clueless, ISTEP+ GQE Math, Cracking the SSAT & ISEE, Elementary and Middle School Social Studies, Florida Standards: a handbook for teaching in the Sunshine State, General Science, Handbook of Classroom Management, High School Economics, How to Prepare for the GED, How to Prepare for the TAKS, Illinois ISAT Coach, GED Language Arts & Reading, Master the GED Mathematics, Peterson’s Private Secondary Schools, Science Explorer, Learning and Teaching in the Secondary school, Minds on Science: middle and secondary school methods, many more.
For thousands more free online non-fiction books, see our A-Z Subject Index
About 1,300 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “School Management and Organization”. Some books: Organization Development in Schools, Educational Planning, Educational Administration, Secondary School Administration, The Government and Management of Schools, Educational Administration and Organizational Behavior, Handbook of Organization Development in Schools, Change Processes in the Public Schools, Educational Administration in Canada, many more.
About 300 books from the Internet Archive free online on the subject of Educational Counseling. Some books: Guidance Services in Schools, Foundations of Guidance, Guidance Readings for Counselors, School Counseling: theories and concepts pdf, Pupil Personnel and Guidance Services pdf, Developing and Managing Your School Guidance pdf, Developmental Guidance and Counseling, Personnel Services in Education pdf, Counseling Methods, many more.
About 400 books from the Internet Archive free online on the subject of Distance Education. Some books: The Unofficial Guide to Distance Learning pdf, Distance Education in Canada pdf, Learning at a Distance pdf, Personal Computers for Distance Education pdf, The Distance Learner’s Guide pdf, Videoconferencing for K-12 Classrooms pdf, Contemporary Issues in American Distance Education, Using Communications Media in Open and Flexible Learning, Globalizing Education, many more.
About 750 books from the Internet Archive free online on the subject of Science – Study and Teaching – Elementary. Some books: Children and Science, Science Horizons, Elementary Science, Concepts and Inquiries in Elementary School Science, 15 Standards-based Science Activities Kids Will Love pdf, Teaching Elementary Science pdf, Teaching Science as Inquiry pdf, The Teaching of Science in the Elementary School, How to Teach Elementary School Science, many more.
Physical Education Books – CollectionEssential Education Books Free Online
About 950 books from the Internet Archive free online on the subject of Physical Education. Some books: Foundations of Physical Education Exercise Science and Sport, A Brief History of Physical Education, Teaching Physical Education in Secondary Schools, Essentials of Athletic Training, The Deeper Meaning of Physical Education, How to Change the Games Children Play, Physical Education Curriculum pdf, Contemporary Readings in Physical Education, Principles of Athletic Training pdf, Soviet Sports Exercise Program, Building Strong Bones and Muscles pdf, Skill in Sport, Issues in Physical Education and Sports, many more.
About 650 books from the Internet Archive free online on the subject of Learning Disabilities. Some books: Learning Disabilities and Handicaps, Academic and Developmental Learning Disabilities, Students with Learning Disabilities pdf, When Learning is Tough, An Intro to Learning Disabilities, Reading and Learning Disabilities pdf, Learning Disabilities in Children, Learning Disabilities Information and Resources, Learning Problems and Learning Disabilities, many more.
VINTAGE BOOKS – Education
Common Sense in Education and Teaching; an Introduction to Practice – Vintage Books About Pedagogy
Barnett, P. A.
Longmans 1901 Dewey Dec. 375
Discusses discipline, curriculums, games, gymnastics, the monitorial system, the training of teachers, methods of teaching modern languages, etc. Emphasizes study of the classics. -A.L.A.Catalog 1904
Southern Illinois Univ. 1985 Dewey Dec. 370.1
Written in 1916. In this book Dewey sought to at once synthesize, criticize, and expand upon the democratic (or proto-democratic) educational philosophies of Rousseau and Plato. He saw Rousseau’s philosophy as overemphasizing the individual and Plato’s philosophy as overemphasizing the society in which the individual lived. For Dewey, this distinction was by and large a false one; like Vygotsky, he viewed the mind and its formation as a communal process.
University of Chicago 1915 Dewey Dec. 370
Contents: Originally published in 1899, The School and Society began as a series of lectures given to parents, professionals, and others at the University Elementary School. In this short volume, Dewey discusses the way in which education is fundamentally tied to a thriving democracy. The problem, according to the author, with the old education model was that elementary schools did not encourage exploration and curiosity in their students. In a country that requires the thoughtful pursuit of ideas by the populace in order to arrive at reasonable governance, this repressive form of education encouraged rote following and closed minds. Anyone interested in philosophy, education, and the general betterment of society will find Dewey’s thoughts and early childhood learning progressive and intriguing.
Bardeen 1894 Dewey Dec. 370
U.S. Bureau of Education
Washington: GPO 1917 Dewey Dec. 370
Dept of the Interior: U.S. Bureau of Education Bulletin, 1916, No. 39
Woolley, Mary Emma, ed.
Hall and Locke 1911 Dewey Dec. 370
Volume 7 in a 10-vol. series called “Vocations” edited by William DeWitt Hyde. This volume contains 3 parts; “The Teacher”, and “Great Teachers and Educational Leaders”, with six to eight essays each; and “School and College” with 20 essays. All essays were authored by different people.