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After the Civil War Reconstruction – America in the 1890s – 1880s in America

After the Civil War Reconstruction - America in the 1890s - 1880s in America

After the Civil War Reconstruction, America in the 1890s, 1880s in America, America in the 1870s. US history 1865-1900.

Free online American history books.

1865-1877 Books Collection – After the Civil War Reconstruction

About 1,800 free online books on the Reconstruction Era in U.S. History. Some books: The Era of Reconstruction 1865-1877, An Album of Reconstruction, America after the Civil War, A History of the United States since the Civil War, Reconstruction in the South, The Nation Reunited, Conservative Ordeal, Northern Democrats and Reconstruction 1865-1868, The Reconstruction of Georgia, The Negro in Reconstruction, America’s First Effort at Racial Democracy, Black Reconstructionists, Forty Acres and Maybe a Mule, America’s Unfinished Revolution 1863-1877, African Americans and the Political Process during Reconstruction, many more books on Reconstruction.. Reconstruction era U.S. history, post-war South, time period after Civil War, Gilded Age Era, economic growth after the Civil War.

U.S. History 1865-1898 Books Collection

About 200 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “United States – History – 1865-1898”. Some books: Development of the Industrial United States 1870-1900, The United States in 1876, Unity and Culture: the U.S. 1877-1900, America in the Time of Sitting Bull: 1840-1890, The Rise of Industry 1870-1900, Photography and the American Scene, The New Commonwealth, The Gilded Age, America in the Gilded Age, The Nationalizing of American Life, After the Civil War: a pictorial profile, Into the West: from Reconstruction to the final days of the American frontier, many more books on U.S. History late 19th century. The Gilded Age era, time period after Civil War, post Civil War presidents, post War South, Gilded Age 1870-1900, economic growth after the Civil War, Reconstruction era U.S. history.

U.S. Social Life & Customs 1865-1918 Free Books – Collection

About 120 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “United States – Social Life & Customs – 1865-1918”. Some books: Life in a Small Country Village, The Condition of Woman in the United States, When I Grew Up Long Ago, Families of Fortune: life in the Gilded Age, American Civic Life and the Golden Age of Fraternity, Victorian America 1876 to 1913, Anthony Comstock and Family Reproduction in Victorian America, Oscar Wilde Discovers America 1882, The American Scene, many more books about Social Life and Customs in the late 19th Century. Gilded Age era, time period after Civil War, Reconstruction era U.S. history, 1870-1900.

U.S. Politics & Government 1865-1933 Free Books – Collection

About 120 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “United States Politics & Government 1865-1933”. Some books: Progressivism and a Society in Transition, America in the Progressive Era 1890-1914, The U.S. Enters the 20th century, Studies in the Development of American Political Thought, The Decline of Popular Politics, The Party Period and Public Policy, Progressive Reform: a guide to information sources, The Agrarian Crusade, Theodore Roosevelt, American Populism: a social history 1877-1898, many more books on U.S. Politics and Government. Gilded age Progressive era, time period after Civil War, Post Civil War history, westward expansion in the Gilded Age, Reconstruction era U.S. history.

See our collected articles about U.S. History in the 19th Century

Frontier and Pioneer Life – U.S. West Books Collection

About 900 books from the Internet Archive free online on the subject of Frontier and Pioneer Life – U.S. West. Some books: The Passing of the Frontier: a chronicle of the old west, Way Out West: recollections and tales, Kit Carson’s Autobiography, A Nation Moving West, The Great American West: a pictorial history, Buckskin and Blanket days: memoirs of a friend of the Indians, Recollections of a Cowpuncher, the Pony Express, Heritage of the West, The Dramatic Conquest of the American West, A History of the Cattlemen and Cattle Country, many more books on the frontier and pioneer life in the West.

Contemporary American History 1877-1913

Beard, Charles A.
1914 Dewey Dec. 973.8

A text book which is intended to supply the student and the general reader with a handy guide. The history of the period is treated mainly from the economic viewpoint. Contains an annotated bibliography. – Standard Catalog 1929

Contents: 1. The Restoration of White Dominion in the South 2. The Economic Revolution 3. The Revolution in Politics and Law 4. Parties and Party Issues, 1877-1896 5. Two Decades of Federal Legislation, 1877-1896 6. The Growth of Dissent 7. The Campaign of 1896 8. Imperialism 9. The Development of Capitalism 10. The Administrations of Theodore Roosevelt 11. The Revival of Dissent 12. Mr. Taft and Republican Disintegration 13. The Campaign of 1912 Appendix Bibliography. The Gilded Age.

Rutherford B. Hayes and his America – America in the 1870s

Barnard, Harry
Russell & Russell 1967 Dewey Dec. 973.8

Rutherford B. Hayes presidency, America in the 1870s.

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Twelve against Empire; The Anti-Imperialists, 1898-1900 – America in the 1890s

Beisner, Robert L.
McGraw-Hill 1968 Dewey Dec. 973.8

“This prize-winning book examines the anti-imperialist protest of twelve prominent and strong-minded Americans against the empire seized from Spain in 1898. Although they did not agree among themselves on all points, these men—whether philosopher (William James), Robber Baron (Andrew Carnegie), ex-President (Benjamin Harrison), perennial dissenter (Carl Schurz), Speaker of the House (Thomas B. Reed), or closet critic (Charles Eliot Norton) – joined forces with the others in this study and thousands of their countrymen “to warn a nation of optimists that America could not escape the consequences of its own conduct.” Their unheeded warning is eloquently renewed in this book.” – Book cover

Contents: The American Mugwump – Carl Schurz: the law and the prophet – William James: Paradise lost – E. L. Godkin and Charles Eliot Norton: the last straw – Edward Atkinson: the informal empire – Charles Francis Adams and the election of 1900 – George F. Hoar: the trials of dissent – Andrew Carnegie: the primacy of the Philippines – Old chiefs and stalwarts: the impotent protest – The Anti-Imperialists and America: a conclusion. America in the 1890s.

Indian Fights and Fighters; The Soldier and the Sioux

Brady, Cyrus Townsend
McClure, Phillips 1904 Dewey Dec. 973.8

Contents: Part I: Protecting the Frontier: The Powder River expedition – The tragedy of Fort Phil Kearney – The thirty-two against the three thousand – Personal reminiscences of Fort Phil Kearney and the wagon-box fight – Forsyth and the Rough Riders of ’68 – The journey of the scouts and the rescue of Forsyth – A scout’s story of the defense of Beecher’s Island – Carpenter and his brunettes. The fight on Beaver Creek – A further discussion of the Beaver Creek affair – The battle of the Washita – Carr and Tall Bull at Summit Springs.

Part II: The War with the Sioux: With Crook’s advance – Ex-trooper Towne on the Rosebud fight – The grievance of Rain-in-the-Face – The Little Big Horn Campaign – The Last of Custer – One of the last men to see Custer alive – The personal story of Rain-in-the-face – Two interesting affairs – The first success – A decisive blow – Miles’ great campaigning – What they are there for – a sketch of General Guy V. Henry, a typical American soldier. Indian Wars, General George Armstrong Custer.

Northwestern Fights and Fighters

Brady, Cyrus Townsend, ed.
Doubleday, Page 1913 Dewey Dec. 973.8

These are collected accounts of actual battles between the U.S. Army and various Indian forces, and appear to have been contributed in most cases by Army officers who participated.

Contents: The Nez Perce War: The epic of the Nez Perces – Chief Joseph’s own story – General Howard’s comment on Joseph’s narrative – The battle of White Bird Canyon – The affair at Cottonwood – The Salmon River expedition – The battle of Clearwater – The assembling of the soldiers and the battle of Clearwater – The battle of the Big Hole – The battle of Camas Meadows – The story of Bugler Brooks – The Seventh Cavalry at Canyon Creek – Anecdotes of Chief Joseph.

The Modoc War: In the land of burnt out fires – The first blow – Jackson’s expedition – Boutelle and Scar-Faced Charley – The initial shot – The country they marched and fought over – The killing of the commissioners – First and second battles in the Lava-Beds – The disaster to Thomas’ command – Carrying a stretcher through the Lava-Beds – The last fight of the campaign. Appendix. Indian Wars.

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Historical Dictionary of the Progressive Era, 1890-1920 – America in the 1890s

Buenker, John D; Kantowicz, Edward R, eds.
Greenwood 1988 Dewey Dec. 973.8

The Progressive Era may be described as a broad-based response by Americans from diverse backgrounds to the emergence of the United States as a modern, urban, industrial, and multicultural world power during the period 1890 to 1920. The Historical Dictionary of the Progressive Era, 1890-1920 is a comprehensive source detailing the people and events that made this a notable period in American history. The volume provides biographical sketches of the most prominent individuals of the period along with entries on major reform and professional organizations, key legislative enactments, commissions and committees, schools of interpretation, and important concepts. In each entry the contributor presents the most important factual information and an interpretation of the topic’s significance. Where applicable, each entry has a bibliography that includes the manuscript collection and the standard and revisionist works on the topic. The dictionary also includes an introductory essay and a chronology of important events. A subject index containing organizations, laws, concepts, states, and cities concludes the work.

Reconstruction and the Constitution 1866-1876 – After the Civil War Reconstruction

Burgess, John W.
NY: Scribner’s Sons 1905 Dewey Dec. 973.8

A volume in the “American History Series”. Burgess also authored the two books that came before this in the series: “The Middle Period” and “The Civil War and the Constitution”.

Contents: The theory of Reconstruction – President Lincoln’s views and acts in regard to Reconstruction – President Johnson’s plan of Reconstruction and his proceedings in realization of it – The Congressional plan of Reconstruction – The execution of the Reconstruction Acts – The attempt to remove the President – Reconstruction resumed – President Grant and Reconstruction – “Carpet-Bag” and Negro domination in the southern states between 1868 and 1876 – The Presidential election of 1876 and its consequences – International relations of the U.S. between 1867 and 1877. Reconstruction after the Civil War, Andrew Johnson as President, Ulysses S. Grant presidency, America in the 1870s.

The Transformation of American Foreign Relations, 1865-1900

Campbell, Charles S.
Harper & Row 1976 Dewey Dec. 973.8

A volume in the “New American Nation” series.

Contents: Postwar frustrations — The Quasi settlement with Great Britain — A Caribbean naval base and an Isthmian Canal: the 1870s and 1880s — Commitments in Hawaii and Samoa — Commercial expansion in the 1880s — The Far East — Anglo-American-Canadian controversies in the northeastern fisheries and the Bering Sea — Currents of the 1890s and territorial expansion — Unjingo Jim — The Hawaiian revolution of 1893 and its aftermath — The Venezuela boundary dispute: a turning point in Anglo-American relations — Stalemate: an American Isthmian Canal and Hawaii — Chronic rebellion in Cuba — War with Spain — Fait accompli at Manila Bay — Territorial expansion — Anglo-American amity. 1865-1900.

When the War was Over: the Failure of Self-Reconstruction in the South, 1865-1867 – After the Civil War Reconstruction

Carter, Dan T.
Louisiana State University 1985 Dewey Dec. 973.8

“In the months after Appomattox, the South was plunged into a chaos that surpassed even the disorder of the last hard months of the war itself. Peace brought, if anything, an increased level of violence to the region as local authorities of the former Confederacy were stripped of their power and the returning foot soldiers of the defeated army, hungry and without hope, raided the already impoverished countryside for food and clothing…. ‘When the War Was Over’ is a social and political history of the two years following the surrender of the Confederacy, when the South, under the watchful gaze of Congress and the Union army, attempted to rebuild its shattered society and economic structure… Carter draws a vivid portrait of the political leaders who emerged after the war, a diverse group of men — former loyalists as well as a few mildly repentant fire-eaters — who in some cases genuinely sought to find a place in southern society for the newly emancipated slaves, but who in many other cases merely sought to redesign the boundaries of black servitude.” -Publisher

Contents: 1. Social disorder and violence in the land of the vanquished — 2. Self-reconstruction begins: the failure of the strait-sect unionism — 3. Southern realism and southern honor: the limits of self-reconstruction — 4. Uncertain prophets in the land of the vanquished — 5. The proslavery argument in a world without slavery — 6. Self-reconstruction: the final act — 7. Political alternatives in the land of fog and confusion. Reconstruction after the Civil War.

America in the Gilded Age: From the Death of Lincoln to the Rise of Theodore Roosevelt

Cashman, Sean Dennis
New York University 1988 Dewey Dec. 973.8

Sean Dennis Cashman traces the political and social saga of America as it passed through the momentous transformation of the Industrial Revolution and the settlement of the West.

Contents: Industrial spring — Titans at war: The industrial legacy of Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Morgan — Exodus to a promised land — The sorrows of labor — Not since Nineveh: Tall stories and tales of two cities — Midsummer of the American Renaissance — Reconstruction and the New South — The last refuge of a scoundrel — Opening the West and closing the frontier — Gates of silver and bars of gold — War and empire — The dawn of a progressive age. America in the Gilded Age.

The Presidency of Andrew Johnson – After the Civil War Reconstruction

Castel, Albert E.
Regents 1979 Dewey Dec. 973.8

“Castel achieves an objective reassessment of Johnson and his presidential actions by examining him primarily in terms of his effectiveness in using power and by not judging him–as most other scholars have–on moralistic or ideological grounds… Johnson’s formulation of a Reconstruction policy for the defeated South comes under special scrutiny; Castel evaluates Johnson’s motives for that policy, its implementation, and its reception in both North and South. He descries and analyzes Johnson’s quarrel with the Republican-dominated Congress over Reconstruction, the triumph of the Republicans in the election of 1866, the president’s frustrated attempt to remove Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton from office, his bitter dispute with General Ulysses S. Grant, and his impeachment by Congress… This study sheds light on the nation’s problems during the chaotic period between 1865 and 1869 and contributes a great deal to a much improved understanding of the seventeenth president.” -Publisher

Contents: Andrew Johnson becomes President – The President proclaims his policy – Presidential Reconstruction in action – Johnson quarrels with the Republicans – Johnson loses his quarrel – Republican Reconstruction – The President counterattacks – Johnson versus Grant – Impeachment – Trial and escape – Johnson finishes his Presidency – Johnson before the bar of history. Andrew Johnson as President.

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Relations of the United States and Spain: the Spanish-American War vol 1 – America in the 1890s

– Volume 2

Chadwick, French Ensor
1911 Dewey Dec. 973.8

A comprehensive, well documented history which is of special value for its extended presentation of the Spanish point of view. – A.L.A. Catalog 1926

Contents: Volume I: 1. Naval Movements and Preparations 2. The Forces 3. Strategy 4. Spanish Views 5. The Beginning of Hostilities 6. The Battle of Manila 7. Sampson’s Move Eastward, the Attack on San Juan, and Cervera’s Arrival in the Caribbean 8. Cervera’s Voyage 9. The Moves to Intercept Cervera 10. Cienfuegos 11. The Movements of the Flying Squadron 12. The Situation in Santiago 13. Sampson Leaves for Santiago; Schley Begins Blockad 14. The Blockade and the Sinking of the “Merrimac” 15. The Blockade of Santiago 16. The Blockade of Santiago: The Army Movement Appendices
Volume II: 1. The Army Expedition to Santiago 2. The Spanish Situation at Santiago 3. The Army’s Advance on Santiago 4. The Army’s Advance on Santiago – Continued 5. The Battles of El Caney and San Juan Hill 6. The Sortie of the Spanish Squadron 7. The Naval Battle of Santiago 8. After the Battle 9. The Investment of Santiago 10. Preparations for the East. In Front of Santiago 11. The Surrender of Santiago 12. The Eastern Squadron. Preparing for the New Expeditions 13. The Puerto Rico Expedition 14. Last Operations in the North Atlantic 15. The Blockade and Minor Operations 16. The Blockade of Manila and Despatch of Troops 17. The Cruise of Camara’s Squadron 18. The Army at Manila 19. The Surrender of Manila 20. The Peace Protocol 21. The Treaty of Peace Bibliography Appendices. History of the Spanish American War.

An Army for Empire; the United States Army in the Spanish-American War – America in the 1890s

Cosmas, Graham A.
University of Missouri 1971 Dewey Dec. 973.8

“Military historian Graham A. Cosmas reconstructs the planning and execution of Spanish-American War strategy from the perspective of those with the ultimate responsibility: the president, the secretary of war, the commanding general of the army, and the chief and commanders of the army’s various bureaus and corps… Cosmas argues that the traditional view of the war is from the “bottom up” because, while headlines were being made about inadequate supplies, disease, and outdated weapons at ground level, the civilian and military figures at the highest ranks remained virtually silent about how and why they made their decisions. This volume, based on intensive research in documentary materials, including the personal papers of President William McKinley and Secretary of War Russell A. Alger, as well as the voluminous files of Adjutant General Henry Clark Corbin and the quartermaster general’s offices, shows the day-to-day progress of the war as the highest-ranking officials saw it, digested it, and based subsequent decisions on it.” -Publisher

Contents: The War Department and the Army, 1898 – The men and their ideas – The shaping of military policy – Mobilization begins; strategy changes – Command, administration, and supply – Organizing the Invasion forces – The army in combat – Sickness and scandal – An army for empire. History of the Spanish American War

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National Problems 1885-1897 (American Nation, Vol. 24) – 1880s in America – America in the 1890s

Dewey, Davis Rich
1907 Dewey Dec. 973.8

“Beginning with the new economic conditions that the Cleveland administration of 1884 found, Professor Dewey traces the course of the national problems to 1897. He deals with organized labor, civil service, the tariff, silver, railroads, foreign relations, the reorganization of the Republican party, foreign policy, commercial organization currency, and the free coinage campaign of 1896.” Book Review Digest. Contains maps and bibliography.

Contents: 1. Growth and Development (1880-1897) 2. The Civil Service (1885-1888) 3. Organized Labor (1884-1888) 4. Tariff Agitation (1885-1889) 5. Silver and Expenditures (1885-1889) 6. National Supervision of Railroads (1886-1896) 7. Fisheries and Isthmian Canal (1885-1889) 8. Campaign of 1888 (1887-1888) 9. Solidifying the Republican Party (1888-1892) 10. The Negro Vote (1890) 11. McKinley Tariff and Billion-Dollar Congress (1889-1893) 12. Trusts (1882-1897) 13. Foreign Affairs under Harrison (1889-1893) 14. Silver Agitation (1889-1893) 15. Presidential Election of 1892 16. Maintenance of the Gold Standard (1893-1896) 17. Democratic Tariff Legislation (1893-1895) 18. Labor Disturbances (1894) 19. Hawaii and Venezuela (1894-1895) 20. Campaign for Free Coinage (1896) 21. Critical Essay on Authorities. Grover Cleveland presidency. The Gilded Age era, Post Civil War industrialization, the politics of the Gilded Age, Gilded Age industry, post Civil War presidents.

A Very Different Age: Americans of the Progressive Era – America in the 1890s

Diner, Steven J.
Hill and Wang 1998 Dewey Dec. 973.8

“Diner, drawing on the rich scholarship of recent social history, focuses on how Americans of diverse backgrounds and at all economic levels responded to the Progressive Era. Industrial workers and farmers, recent immigrants and African Americans, white-collar workers and small entrepreneurs had to reinvent the ways they managed their work, family, community, and leisure as the forces of change swept away familiar modes of economic life, rearranged hierarchies of social status, and redefined the relationship of citizens to their government.” -Book jacket.

Contents: Prologue: Crisis in the 1890s – Owners, managers, and corporate capitalism – Industrial workers’ struggle for control – immigrants in industrial America – Rural Americans and industrial capitalism – African-Americans’ quest for freedom – White-collar workers in corporate America – The competition for control of the professions – The progressive discourse in American politics – The Great War and the competition for control. Progressive Reform era. Gilded Age Progressive era, Gilded Age industry, the politics of the Gilded age.

The Presidencies of James A. Garfield & Chester A. Arthur – 1880s in America

Doenecke, Justus D
Regents 1988 Dewey Dec. 973.8

“Far from being cynical spoilsmen or naive incompetents, individuals whose presidencies provide studies in ineptitude, Garfield and Arthur emerge as men of considerable ability… [Garfield’s] knowledge of how government worked was unmatched; long before Woodrow Wilson made his mark, Garfield was “the scholar in politics.”… Garfield was assassinated less than six months after he entered office; he had yet to be tested on major issues of public policy. Chester A. Arthur was ill prepared to be chief executive, was in poor health much of the time while he was in office, and was faced with a hopelessly divided party. Nevertheless, he was one of the nation’s great political surprises… Doenecke challenges the long-held view that, from 1881 to 1885, the nation was withdrawn and insular. His fresh perspective on the Garfield and Arthur years will be of considerable interest to historians of the Gilded Age.” -Publisher

Contents: Institutions in transition — The uneasy victory — A troubled president — Mr. Secretary Blaine — No longer Chet — Scandal and reform — “Arthur is for us”: the president and the South — Mr. Frelinghuysen’s inheritance — To far-flung shores — Trade and tariffs — The summing up.

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A Terrible Glory: Custer and the Little Bighorn — the Last Great Battle of the American West – America in the 1870s

Donovan, Jim
Little, Brown 2008 Dewey Dec. 973.8

In June of 1876, on a desolate hill above a winding river called “the Little Bighorn,” George Armstrong Custer and all 210 men under his command were annihilated by almost 2,000 Sioux and Cheyenne. The news caused a public uproar, and those in positions of power promptly began to point fingers in order to avoid responsibility. Custer, who was conveniently dead, took the brunt of the blame. The truth, however, was far more complex. This is the first book to relate the entire story, and the first to call upon all the research and findings of the past 25 years–which have changed significantly how this controversial event is perceived. It is also the first book to bring to light the details of the U.S. Army cover-up–and unravel one of the greatest mysteries in U.S. military history.” Publisher

Contents: Prologue: Good day to die — Approach: — Divine injunction — Boy general of the golden lock — Patriots — Outside the states — Belknap’s Anaconda — Submitt to Uncl Sam or kill the 7 hors — Advance: — Hide and seek for Sitting Bull– Fruits of insubordination — Seventh rides out — Trail to the greasy grass — On the jump — Attack: — Charge — Savior of the Seventh — Soldiers falling — Hill — Death was all around us — Rescue — Aftermath: — All the world has gone — Lost captain — For the honor of the regiment — Ghosts dancing. The West after the Civil War, Westward expansion after the Civil War.

Black Reconstruction in America – After the Civil War Reconstruction

Du Bois, W. E. B.
Free Press 1998 Dewey Dec. 973.8

W.E.B. Du Bois called Black Reconstruction, first published in 1934, his “magnum opus.” A massive reinterpretation of the Civil War and Reconstruction with African Americans as actors rather than pawns, it presaged postwar changes in prevailing interpretations of southern history, as well as the rise of black militancy in the 1960s.

Contents:The black worker — The white worker — The planter — The general strike — The coming of the Lord — Looking backward — Looking forward — The transubstantiation of a poor white — The price of disaster — The black proletariat in South Carolina — The black proletariat in Mississippi and Louisiana — The white proletariat in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida — The duel for labor control on border and frontier — Counter-revolution of property — Founding the public school — Back toward slavery — The propaganda of history. Reconstruction after the Civil War. Reconstruction era U.S. history, Post Civil War history, Post War South, economic reconstruction after the Civil War, economic growth after the Civil War, post Civil War years, time paeriod after Civil War.

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Reconstruction; Political and Economic 1865-1877 (American Nation, Vol. 22) – After the Civil War Reconstruction

Dunning, William Archibald
1907 Dewey Dec. 973.8

“The purpose of the volume is to show that Reconstruction, with all its hardships and inequities, was not deliberately planned as a punishment and humiliation for those formerly in rebellion, though the spirit of retribution had its part. It was an effort, clumsy and partisan, yet in the main honestly meant to make provision for the inevitable consequences of the Civil War.” Editor’s introduction. Contains maps and bibliography.

Contents: 1. Problems of the Restored Union (1865) 2. Working towards a Peace Basis (1865) 3. The Policy and Ambition of President Johnson (1865) 4. The First Congressional Policy of Reconstruction (1865-1866) 5. The Judgment of North and South on Reconstruction (1866-1867) 6. Radical Reconstruction at Washington (1866-1868) 7. Radical Reconstruction in the South (1867-1868) 8. The Election of Grant (1868) 9. Economic and Social State of the Nation (1865-1869) 10. A Critical Period in Foreign Relations (1865-1873) 11. The Climax of Radical Reconstruction (1869-1872) 12. The Liberal Republican Movement and its Failure (1870-1872) 13. Political and Social Demoralization in the South (1870-1873) 14. Commercial and Industrial Demoralization in the North (1869-1873) 15. The “Tidal Wave” of 1874 16. The Supreme Court and Reconstruction (1865-1875) 17. The Movement towards White Supremacy in the South (1874-1875) 18. The Nadir of National Disgrace (1875-1876) 19. The Presidential Campaign (1876) 20. The Disputed Count (1876) 21. The Electoral Commission (1877) 22. Critical Essay on Authorities. Reconstruction after the Civil War, Andrew Johnson as president, Ulysses S. Grant presidency. Time period after Civil War, Reconstruction era U.S. history, post Civil War history, post war South, post Civil War events.

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